Islam’s teachings are simple and acceptable to human intellect. It is free from superstitions and irrationality. The oneness of God, the prophet-hood of Muhammad PBUH and the concept of life after death are the basics articles of its faith. All of the teachings of Islam flow from these basic beliefs and are simple and straightforward. There is no hierarchy of priests, no farfetched abstractions, and no complicated rites or rituals. It enjoins us to see things in the light of reality. The Quran advises us to seek knowledge and invoke God to expand one’s awareness:
“Say ‘O, my Lord! Advance me in knowledge’.” (Quran 20:114)
God also says:
“Are those who know equal with those who know not? But only men of understanding will pay heed.” (Quran 39:9)
Some attributes emphasize the transcendence of Allah. The Quran repeatedly makes it clear that Allah is beyond our limited perception. That means He in no way resembles His creation. For if the Creator is like the creation, He is no more worthy of worship.
“There is nothing whatever comparable unto him.” (Quran 42:1)
“No Vision can grasp Him, but His grasp is over all vision.” (Quran 6:103)
A Muslim never thinks of God as having any particular image, whether physical, human, material or otherwise. Such attributes as “The Perfectly-Knowing.” “The Eternal”, “The Just,” “The Omnipotent,” “The Omnipresent,” and “The Sovereign” also emphasize transcendence. But this does not mean in any way that for the Muslim, All is a mere philosophical concept or a deity far removed. Indeed, alongside this emphasizes on the transcendence of Allah. The Quran also talks about Allah as the “personal” God is close, easily approachable, loving, forgiving and merciful. The very first passage in the Quran, which is repeated dozens of times a day by a Muslim in his prayers, is “In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful….”
For Muslims, monotheism does not mean simply the unity of God, because there can be different persons in unity. Monotheism in Islam is the absolute Oneness of God and the Oneness of worship, which precludes the notion of persons sharing in Godhead. The opposite of monotheism in Islam, is called in Arabic, “shirk,” association of others with Allah. This includes not only polytheism but also dualism (believing in one God for good or light and another for evil or darkness). The concept of “shirk” also includes pantheism, the idea that God is in everything. All forms of God-incarnate philosophies are excluded by Islam’s monotheism. These are all regarded as forms of “associating” others with Allah (shirk), whether by believing that such creatures of Allah possess divinity or by believing that they share the Divine Attributes of Allah. It should be added that, to the Muslim, monotheism is not simply a dogma. Islam’s pure, pristine and strict monotheism is much more than a thought or a belief; it is something that deeply influences Muslim’s whole outlook on life.